The classical version of François-Louis Ganshof`s feudalism describes a series of mutual legal and military obligations that existed under the warrior nobility and revolved around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs. Overall, a lord was a nobleman who owned land, a vassal was a person to whom possession of the land was granted by the Lord, and the land was known as a fief. In exchange for the use of the fief and the protection of the Lord, the vassal would render some kind of service to the Lord. There were many types of feudal land ownership, consisting of military and non-military service. The corresponding duties and rights between the lord and vassals in relation to the fief constitute the basis of the feudal relationship.  A broader definition, as described in Marc Bloch`s Feudal Society (1939), includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility, but also the obligations of the three goods of the empire: the nobility, the clergy and those who lived from their work, directly the peasantry, bound by a manor system; this order is often referred to as a „feudal society,” which reflects Bloch`s usage. Richard Abels notes that „the textbooks of Western civilization and world civilization now avoid the term `feudalism.`”  The term „feudal society”, as defined by Marc Bloch, offers a broader definition as ganshof and within the feudal structure includes not only the warrior aristocracy bound by vassalage, but also the peasantry bound by the manor style and church property. Thus, the feudal order encompasses society from top to bottom, although the „powerful and well-differentiated social group of the urban classes” occupied an independent position outside the classical feudal hierarchy. Although such systems practically no longer exist, the term feudal system is still often heard in political discourse as a negative term for unjust forms of government. This use generally does not refer to the actual structural complexity of feudalism, but aims to make a comparison based on the inequality and injustice of these systems. Nglish: Translation of feudalism for Spanish speakers He also took it as a paradigm to understand the power relations between capitalists and wage workers in his time: „In pre-capitalist systems, it was obvious that most people did not control their own destiny – under feudalism, for example, serfs had to work for their masters. Capitalism seems to be different because people are theoretically free to work for themselves or for others as they please.
But most workers have as little control over their lives as feudal serfs.  Some later Marxist theorists (e.g. B, Eric Wolf) used this label to include non-European societies and to group feudalism as a „tributary” with Chinese and pre-Columbian imperial Inca societies. According to a classic definition by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a series of mutual legal and military obligations that existed under the warrior nobility and revolved around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefdoms, although Ganshof himself noted that its treatment was related only to the „narrow, technical and legal meaning of the word.” Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military and cultural customs that flourished in medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. In the broadest sense, it was a way of structuring society around the relationships that resulted from the possession of land in exchange for services or labor. Although it is derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief) used in the Middle Ages, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived as a formal political system by people who lived in the Middle Ages.  The classical definition of François-Louis Ganshof (1944) describes a series of mutual legal and military obligations that existed under the warrior nobility and revolved around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefdoms.  The vassal`s payment to the Lord usually took the form of feudal service, which could mean military service or regular payment of goods or money.
Both the master and the vassal were free men, and the term feudalism is generally not applied to the relationship between the nonfree peasantry (serfs or villeins) and the person of higher social rank in whose land they worked. Medieval feudalism was essentially based on the mutual aid relationship between master and vassal, but as this system became more complex over time, this relationship weakened. Lords came to own several estates, and vassals could be tenants of various plots of land, so loyalties became confused and even came into conflict with people who chose to honor the relationship that best suited their own needs. Most of the military aspects of feudalism actually ended around 1500.  This happened partly because the army shifted from armies composed of the nobility to professional fighters, thus diminishing the nobility`s claim to power, but also because the Black Death reduced the influence of the nobility on the lower classes. Remnants of the feudal system persisted in France until the French Revolution of the 1790s, and the system persisted in parts of Central and Eastern Europe until the 1850s. Slavery in Romania was abolished in 1856. Russia finally abolished serfdom in 1861.   Feudalism was not limited to medieval Europe. Japan operated under a feudal system from the 1100s to the 1800s under powerful military leaders, the so-called shoguns, whose vassals, called daimyo, controlled samurai armies. At the bottom of the hierarchy were farmers and merchants.
Unlike Bloch, the Belgian historian François-Louis Ganshof defined feudalism from a narrow legal and military point of view, claiming that feudal relations existed only within the medieval nobility themselves. Ganshof articulated this concept in What is Feudalism? („What is feudalism?”, 1944; translated into English as feudalism). His classical definition of feudalism is now widely accepted among medieval scholars, although it is questioned both by those who see the concept in broader terms and by those who find insufficient uniformity in noble exchanges to support such a model. In addition, the system of feudal relations could lead to serious unrest. Sometimes a monarch may insist on active military service because of a war, but nobles may also refuse, as happened to King John of England in 1215 and the barons` revolt that led to the signing of the Magna Carta. In 1215 and in the revolts subsequent to the 13th century. In the nineteenth century, barons acted collectively for their own interests, posing a direct threat to the entire feudal system, which was based on individual lords and vassals crafting their own private agreements. Military service was reduced to fixed conditions, usually 40 days in England, to ease the burden of the nobles so that they would not leave their lands unattended for too long. However, 40 days was usually not enough to end a campaign, and so a monarch was forced to pay mercenaries, which dealt another blow to the tradition of feudalism and vassalage.
The word feudalism may recall images of simple peasants working for haughty nobles, but the relationships in such systems were more complex than that. At the top of the hierarchy in the feudal system was a king who traditionally owned all the land and gave it directly to the nobles, called lords, who owned hereditary rights over it. Their tenants, called vassals, swore allegiance to the Lord and performed their military service (yes, knights in shining armor). The land (current agriculture) at the bottom of the hierarchy was worked by peasants called serfs. Serfs were not free to work anywhere else or go wherever they wanted – if the land passed from one owner to another, the serfs had to work the land for that new owner. And they had to get the Lord`s permission to do almost anything, including getting married or traveling out of the country. Definition.. .